Lafarge Cement UK wants to switch from burning coal in the cement kiln at its Aberthaw works and burn bonemeal as a partial substitute.
A final decision on the plan will be taken by Environment Agency Wales which has organised a series of surgeries to allow residents to raise any concerns.
Lafarge Cement UK says using meat and bone meal as a partial fuel substitute will provide up to 30 per cent of the thermal energy requirements of the kiln. The products would be processed into a powder and then delivered to the plant and burned in the kiln.
An Environment Agency Wales spokesman said: "Meat and bone meal was once used as a fertiliser and an animal feed, but it is now usually taken to landfill sites for disposal.
"Using it as a substitute fuel in cement kilns would be a way of re-using the waste and reducing pressure on scarce landfill space."
The spokesman said: "Should the permit be approved, Lafarge will carry out a trial, during which the agency monitors emissions from the site at frequent intervals."
Cement works manager Dave Dawson said carcasses would not be delivered to the plant. He said: "There will be a very minor odour at the plant. It smells like soil. We are investing in equipment to keep it sealed and there will be no impact on the surrounding area."