Cement Kiln Process Chemistry Course



A six-week modular e-Learning Course designed for cement manufacturers and also suppliers of specialist equipment and services relating to cement kiln chemistry.

Course Content

Module 1– Factors affecting the efficiency and productivity of cement kiln operations.


      Combination and combinability – combination of the raw materials into the clinker minerals:

      (a) Thermodynamics
      (b) Calcination of CaCO3
      (c) Zur Strassen theories
      (d) Raw material mineralogical effects
      (e) Intermediate combination products
      (f) Inhibitors
      (g) Fluxes & mineralisers Cyclic phenomena:

      (a) Mechanism
      (b) Hot mineral interactions
      (c) Internal & external cycles

      Expected time to complete Module 1 will be two weeks.

Module 2 – Factors affecting clinker product quality.


      (a)  Phase Equilibria:
      (b) CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 ternary system
      (c) Deviation from Bogue mineralogy
      (d) Crystal forms & polymorphs
      (e) Combustion & reduction

      Expected time to complete Module 2 will be two weeks.

Module 3 – Factors affecting safety and emissions to the environment:

      (a) Dust
      (b) CO and THCs
      (c) Acid Gases
      (d) Heavy Metals
      (e) Dioxins & Furans
      (f) Heavy Metals

      Expected time to complete Module 2 will be two weeks.

Course Material

The course will be conducted on-line, via a series of connecting modules, allowing students flexibility (within a set timeframe) to complete each module and associated assessments at work or home. Students should expect to devote around 4+ hours per week plus some additional time for private reading/study. Dr Michael Clark is the course leader. A computer with internet access (broadband recommended) and email capabilities will be necessary.

While covering theoretical considerations, the objective of the course is to be practical to cement chemists, process and quality engineers at the factory level. The course will also try answer all the questions regarding clinker quality and kiln operations that have arisen during more than 30 years spent manufacturing cement by the course tutor.

The course will be divided into three modules lasting two weeks each, with all three modules delivered over a continuous six-week period. Each module will explore the theoretical foundations and conclude with discussion of their relevance for current issues in cement manufacturing.

Throughout the course the lectures are supplemented with exercises allowing participants to relate course material to their cement factories, or the cement factories of their clients in the case of equipment or service suppliers to the cement industry. Certification is achieved by completing a satisfactory level of exercises, and by end-of-module exams.

The course is complete with downloadable handouts of lectures, exercises, and reading material for the training record.