Challenges in developing a refuse-derived fuel for cement kilns in Southeast Asia from local waste: Brian McGrath, ResourceCo Asia (Singapore)

Filmed at Cemtech Asia 2015, 21-24 June, Grand Hyatt, Bangkok, Thailand

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The use of alternative fuels by the cement industry continues to grow. The respondents to this Oil Business Council Survey, which represents around two thirds of cement production outside of China shows the usage of alternative fuels has reached 40 million tons annually in 2012, and this is equates to an overall substitution rate of around 12%.

Now, if we drill down through those numbers and examine the performance of one the major cement producers responding to that survey, we can see that the specific kilns in the group is an extremely wide distribution in the take up of alternative fuels. So why are some counTyres achieving such a high substitution, right?

And others, nothing at all. Well, the answer lies in the range of challenges that must be dealt with to develop a project. Access to an economically viable fuel service is the first challenge, and there are hurdles that must be overcome relating to the energy market. Community acceptance and regulatory approval, each kiln will have its own unique characteristics relating to raw material chemistry, kiln design and layout. So, there is a multiplicity of issues that we need to deal with.

So, well there are many challenges that will be common to any life to energy project. In South East Asia, the sourcing of feedstock stands out as a major challenge that has to be dealt with. To make the project work, it's necessary to have feedstock that has the right setting in terms of quantity, quality, and price, and this can be difficult in South East Asia for a number of reasons.

The cost of landfill is low due to engineering design standards is no or low government impose landfill rubbish, poor quality of waste in terms of recoverable calorific value. Landfill costs are not fully pashed on to the waste generator. There's a lack of a regulatory framework to drive higher induce options and vested interests, may be more interested in maintaining the status quo. The resource qua responds to this challenge is been to initially source material from the mature waste market, in this case Australia to provide the underlying security supply, price and fuel quality.

The establishment of a local processing facility then allows the development of a local sourcing network to capture the feedstock at source before it enters the waste stream, then it facilitates a transition from external to local sourcing. The transboundary movement of solid recovered fuel is accepted international practice, and is expanding rapidly.

For example, a movement of this material out of the UK has grown from nothing in 2010 to over 2 million tons in 2014. The trade is driven by a will developed SRF market in Europe, that includes cement counts. The situation in many ways reflects the regional SRF situation in the Australian South East Asian region.

There're a few additional opportuniTyres for SRF use in the Australian context due to the steady decline of cement manufacturing operations in that country. However, the South East Asian market is growing with the push of both lower energy cost and improve business sustainability. Now, just to give you a picture of the results called Malaysian operation at Ipoh.

This plant produces an IDF SRF material, uses to descriptive pressure [xx] fueled in PEF. The facility utilizes material from which the over size non-combustibles have already been removed, which leaves the material containing a mixture a plastic, timber, textile, and paper. This material is blended and reduced in piece size to around 35 millimeter.

To do this, the material must go through

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